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 Nihongo Lessons

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BIRARU
Biraru san
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeMon Apr 07, 2008 12:15 am

4th lesson
2-4-2008

WORDS TABLE 1 + 2

Let's complete the general words :

Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Words1b

どうぞ = douzo = تفضل


またね or じゃまてね = mata ne or ja mata ne = see you later = أراك لاحقاً
the word (mata) means (again) and (ne)
indicates emphasis like (OK) , we can say before it ( jaa ) which means ( well , ... ) .

はい = hai = yes = نعم

いいえ = iie = no = لا


おげんき ですか? = ogenki desu ka ? = How are you ? = كيف حالك ؟
the prefix (o) is honorable , the word (genki) means (health, vigor) , we will talk about ( desu ) & (ka) in the next lesson , but (ka) refers for asking a question .

はい。 げんきです = hai, genki desu = yes , fine = نعم ، بخير
the answer for the previous question , don't use ( ogenki ) here ; because you are talking about yourself so using the hororable (o) refers for arrogance .

がんばって ください = ganbatte kudasai = do your best = ابذل جهدك
encouraging word , because it's an imperative verb we said (kudasai) after it which make it polite .

がんばります = ganbarimasu =
to try one's best = سأبذل جهدي
the answer for (ganbatte) , it's the same verb in the present tense , which also can refer to future tense .

にほん or にっぽん = nihon or nippon = Japan = اليابان


おつかれさま = otsukaresama = thanks for your efforts = يعطيك العافية




つづく



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BIRARU
Biraru san
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeMon Apr 07, 2008 12:16 am

Lesson 4 - part 2

Let's move to the next sheet ^^

Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Words2a

あの。。 = ano... = ummm... = مممم
it's an expression for thinking let's say , or when you are about to talk with someone ^^

いま = ima = now = الآن

えいご = eigo = english language = اللغة الإنجليزية
the kanji of (ei) refers to to England or english and the kanji of (go) refers for (language) ; so it means ( English language ) , as we said ( nihongo = Japanese language ) and ( arabiago = Arabic language ) ^^

がくせい = gakusei = student = طالب
the kanji of (gaku) refers to (study) and the kanji of (sei) refers to (life) so it's like ( student = life of study ) Razz

せんせい = sensei = teacher = مدرس
we can use this word for teacher and doctors ^^

がっこう = gakkou = school = مدرسة
notive the small tsu how it differs from the big tsu (
っ , つ )

-------------------------------------------------------------

Additional notes :

verbs on masu form is the polite and formal verbs like ( ikimasu , tabemasu , .. ) , we can form the past like this ( masu ==> mashita ) , for example ( ikimashita , tabemashita , ... ) , we will take more details later is sha' ALLAH ^^



End of lesson 4
I hope you've enjoyed it ^^

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeThu Apr 10, 2008 6:25 pm

I'm very sorry minna for being late .... gomen ^^



leeson 5
7-4-2008

WORDS TABLE 2 + DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS + POSSESSION + WEEKDAYS


let's complete :


Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Words2b

だいがく = daigaku = university = جامعة
the kanji of (dai) refers to (large) and the kanji of (gaku) refers to (study) so it's like ( university = large study )

XYZ さん = XYZ san = Mr. XYZ ( or Mrs. ) = سيد فلان ، أو سيدة
the word (san) is a suffix means ( Mr. , Mrs. ) , there are a lot of suffixes in nihongo , see the notes below for more information .

せんもん = senmon = study major = تخصص

そうです = sou desu = that's right = هذا صحيح
we can use it when answering a question like ( yes , that's right = hai, sou desu )

なまえ = namae = name = اسم
if we want to ask someone for his/her name we say ( おなまえ は? = onamae wa ? ) , remember that honourable ( o ) .

ともだち = tomodachi = friend = صديق
and there's another word means friend or comrade which is ( なかま = nakama )

わたし = watashi = I = أنا
there are a lot of words mean ( I ) but this is the formal and polite one which can be used by men and women .

あなた = anata = you ( for singular ) = أنت
there are a lot of words mean ( you ) but this
is the formal and polite one which can be used by men and women , notice that this word can be used just for singular ( even for men or women ) .

なに / なん = nani/nan = what = ماذا

どこ = doko = where = أين

ひと = hito = person = شخص

ちいさい = chiisai = small = صغير

おおきい = ookii = big = كبير


---------------------------------------------------------------


Now let's talk about : demonstrative pronouns ( أسماء الإشارة )


Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Demonstrative_pronouns

kore & kono : this ( indicating an item near the speaker )

sore & sono : that ( indicating an item or person near the listener )

are & ano :
that ( indicating something distant from both speaker and listener )

After the words ( kono , sono , ano ) there must be a name , unlike ( kore , sore , are ) which followed by ( は ) .

Examples :

これ は かばん です
kore wa kaban desu
this is a bag

それ は き です
sore wa ki desu
that is a tree

あれ は やま です
are wa yama desu
that is a mountain ( far mountain )

この かばん は あおい です
kono kaban wa aoi desu
this bag is blue

その き は きれい です
sono ki wa kirei desu
that tree is beautiful

あの やま は おおきい です
ano yama wa ookii desu
that mountain is big ( far mountain )


.
.

つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeThu Apr 10, 2008 7:24 pm

Lesson 5 - part 2


POSSESSION ( الإضافة )

Here we have a very important particle which is ( の = no ) , this particle can be use to describe the possession , notice the following examples :

かわ の みず
kawa no mizu
water of river

==> kawa = river , mizu = water , kawa no mizu = the water of the river

わたし の かばん
watashi no kaban
my bag

==> watashi = I , kaban = bag , watashi no kaban = the bag of (I) = my bag

あなた の ともだち
anata no tomodachi
your friend

==> anata = you , tomodachi = friend , anata no tomodachi = the friend of (you) = your friend


And of course we can use demonstrative pronouns like :

それ は あなた の くるま です
sore wa anata no kuruma desu
that is your car

---------------------------------------------------------

Weekdays

ようび = day of the week .

so :

どようび = do youbi = Saturday
にちようび = nichi youbi = Sunday
げつようび = getsu youbi = Monday
かようび = ka youbi = Tuesday
すいようび = sui youbi = Wednesday
もくようび = moku youbi = Thursday
きんようび = kin youbi = Friday


There's an omoshiroi thing in these names which is the meanings of the Kanji used :

The kanji of ( do ) refers to : earth
The kanji of ( nichi ) refers to : sun
The kanji of ( getsu ) refers to : moon
The kanji of ( ka ) refers to : fire
The kanji of ( sui ) refers to : water
The kanji of ( moku ) refers to : wood
The kanji of ( kin ) refers to : gold


.
.


End of lesson 5
I hope you've enjoyed it ^^

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSat Apr 12, 2008 5:18 pm

konnichi wa
Hi BIRA~RU

Its a great job you doing here!

I read some of your lesson and you explain them in
a great way but there was a problem!!!!

why you dont's put the sound for each word
( how to read it) in voice, i mean a recorded
sound , try to look for them in internet , or record
them by yourself !!!

I think this will be a great idea and very helpful
for the beginners -like me!- .

See ya.

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSat Apr 12, 2008 6:24 pm

Konnichi wa Mseemi san ^^

In fact my lectures were recorded ( like Hemma lectures Wink ) but the voice is not so clear and the files are so big to upload ( they were recorded by mobile ) ...

Here you can find a lot of sound files to know how to say various of Japanese words :
http://japanese.about.com/blsoundfile.htm

for more helpful websites please read this topic : HERE

I'll try to add sound files to this page in sha' ALLAH ^^

Thank you for your concern Very Happy

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Apr 13, 2008 9:59 pm

Gakusei no minna ... gomennasai ^^;

I know I should write the 6th lesson but I was a little busy ^^;

I'll post it soon in sha' ALLAH Smile

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeMon Apr 14, 2008 9:02 pm

good Work biraru Smile

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Apr 20, 2008 5:29 pm

Konnichi wa minna ^^

Lesson 6
9-4-2008

SENTENCE STRUCTURE 1 ( Nouns and Adj. )

Let's start making sentences ^^
look to the following picture :

Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Sentence_structure1


This is the general structure of japanese sentences , at the first wehave the TOPIC of the sentence ( موضوع الحديث ) or the SUBJECT ( الفاعل ) , after that we put a particle ( は or が ) then our PURPOSE of the sentence ( noun , adj. or verb ) , then we put ( desu ) after nouns and adjectives .


NOTES
:

1) the reading of the letter ( は ) here is ( wa ) not ( ha ) .

2) we will use the words ( topic , موضوع الحديث ) with ( は ) and the words ( subject , الفاعل ) with ( が ) , even if the topic sometimes could be a subject , for now .. in most of sentences we will use ( wa ) .. let's keep ( ga ) for another special lesson because it confuses .

3) the word ( desu ) comes after nouns and adjectives and not verbs , the meaning of ( desu ) is similar to ( يكون ) or you can imagine it as ( = ) , you will be familiar with it after reading some examples .

-------------------------------------------------------------------


つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Apr 20, 2008 5:40 pm

Lesson 6 - part 2

Let's start with a simple sentence on the first type ( using noun as purpsose ) :


わたし は せんせい です
watashi wa sensei desu
I'm a teacher


notice here we have ( watashi = I ) as the TOPIC of the sentence .. I want to give an information about me ... what's this information ? ... let's complete :

watashi wa ... , here we used ( wa ) .. let's imagine ( wa ) as the particles ( am , is , are ) in English ==> ( watashi wa = I am ) .

let's comlete : watashi wa sensei ... , here I gave an information about the TOPIC ( which is ME Smile ) , this information is that I'm a teacher ( sensei = teacher ) .. now this is the PURPSE ( which is a NOUN in this example ) of the sentence ==> to tell someone that I'm a teacher ..

at the end we have ( desu ) .. imagine it as ( يكون ) or ( = )
أنا أكون معلم
أنا = معلم
I am = teacher

So .. the meaning of the whole sentence is :
watashi wa sensei desu = I'm a teacher = أنا معلم

Another example :

これ は き です
kore wa ki desu
this is a tree


remember ( kore = this ) , the word ( kore ) is the TOPIC of the sentence , then ( wa = is , are , am ) so it's like ( this is .. ) ..

what's the PURPOSE of the sentence ? let's complete reading ...

kore wa ki desu , ( ki = tree ) , the meaning became ( this is a tree ) .. here we have ( ki ) as the PURPOSE of the sentence , it's like my PURPOSE is to give an information about the TOPIC ... the TOPIC is ( this ) and the information I want to tell is ( this is a tree ) .


つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Apr 20, 2008 5:46 pm

Lesson 6 - part 3

More examples :

あなた は がくせい です
anata wa gakusei desu
you are a student


using the rules : ( anata = you ) , ( gakusei = student ) , the sentence means : anata wa gakusei desu = you are a student .

せんもん は こうがく です
senmon wa kougaku desu
study major is engineering


knowing that : ( senmon = study major ) & ( kougaku = engineering ) the sentence will means ( study major is engineering ) ... the TOPIC is the study major ( senmon) and the information I want to give ( the PURPOSE of the sentence ) is that the major is engineering ( kougaku )
.

NOTE : we can put more than one word in the place of TOPIC or PURPOSE ..

わあし の せんもん は こうがく です
watashi no senmon wa kougaku desu
my study major is engineering


Notice here :
the TOPIC is : watashi no senmon = my study major
the PURPOSE is : kougaku = engineering
so the whole meaning is ( my study major is engineering )

Here ... it's like I want to talk about a TOPIC which is

in the previous similar example ( without WATASHI NO ) the meaning was the same but the sentence was general without specifying that it's talking about me or him or her or you .. etc, in the japanese language .. usually they delete the pronouns if the whole topic of speech is understood for the listener .


あなた は わたし の ともだち です
anata wa watashi no tomodachi desu
you are my friend


the TOPIC : ( anata = you )
the PURPOSE : ( watashi no tomodachi = my friend )
so I gave an information about my TOPIC ( you ) that you are ( my friend ) which is the purpose of the sentence to tell that you are my friend ^^



つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Apr 20, 2008 5:52 pm

Lesson 6 - part 4

Now let's move to the second type of the sentences , we will use an Adjective as the PURPOSE of the sentence :

き は きれい です
ki wa kirei desu
tree is beautiful


the TOPIC : ( ki = tree )
the PURPOSE : ( kirei = beautiful )
here we have the same previous rules but the PURPOSE is an adjective .

とり は あおい です
tori wa aoi desu
bird is blue


the TOPIC : ( tori = bird )
the PURPOSE : ( aoi = blue )
notice here that the adjectives usually ends with ( い = i ) or ( しい = shii ) , and the colours are adjectives , so I described the bird that it is blue .

NOTE : also here we can use more than one word as TOPIC or PURPOSE :

その とり は あおい です
sono tori wa aoi desu
that bird is blue


the TOPIC : ( sono tori = that bird )
the PURPOSE : ( aoi = blue )
so I described ( that bird ) that it's ( blue ) .

それ は あおい とり です
sore wa aoi tori desu
that is blue bird


notice here the difference between this sentence and the previous one , in this sentence :
the TOPIC : ( sore = that )
the PURPOSE : ( aoi tori = blue bird )
so I gave an information about ( that ) that is ( blue bird )

つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Apr 20, 2008 5:58 pm

Lesson 6 - part 5

Additional examples
:

あの やま は おおきい です
ano yama wa ookii desu
that mountain is big


にほんご は おもしろい です
nihongo wa omoshiroi desu
Japanese language is interesting


----------------------------------------------

HOW TO MAKE A QUESTION

simply ; just put ( か = ka ) after the sentence so it will be a question ^^

あなた は せんせい です ?= anata wa sensei desu = you are a teacher
あなた は せんせい です か?= anata wa sensei desu ka ? = are you a teacher ?

き は ちいさい です = ki wa chiisai desu = the tree is small
き は ちいさい です か?= ki wa chiisai desu ka ? = is the tree small ?



.
.


End of lesson 6
I hope you've enjoyed it ^^

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeTue Apr 29, 2008 1:24 pm

thaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaanks
alot Biraru
its good job
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeTue Apr 29, 2008 1:43 pm

Douitashimashite Kelwa san ^^

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri May 16, 2008 1:57 am

lesson 7
14-4-2008

SENTENCE STRUCTURE 2 ( Nouns and Adj. in past , negative & neg. past )


let's talk now about how to say nouns & adj. sentences in past ,
or how to make them in negative ( النفي ) or in negative past ^^

1) Noun sentences
 1-a) Negative :


>>> desu ==> dewa arimasen
        or : ja arimasen
        or : dewa nai
        or : ja nai


NOTE : we write (dewa) using (は) not (わ) , like this (では) .

わたし は せんせい です
watashi wa sensei desu
I'm a teacher

わたし は せんせい ではありません

watashi wa sensei dewa arimasen
わたし は せんせい じゃありません
watashi wa sensei ja arimasen
わたし は せんせい ではない
watashi wa sensei dewa nai
わたし は せんせい じゃない
watashi wa sensei janai

all of these previous 4 sentences mean : I'm not a teacher

NOTES :
I) the 1st sentence is the more polite and formal one let's say ^^
II) we can add (desu) after (dewa nai) & (janai) for more formality and politeness ^^
III) the word (arimasen) is the negative form of the verb (arimasu) which
mean (to exist) , notice that (desu) doesn't come after verbs , we will
talk more about verbs in the next lesson in sha' ALLAH ^^

.
.

つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri May 16, 2008 2:03 am

Lesson 7 - part 2


 1-b) past :
>>> ( desu ==> deshita )

わたし は せんせい です
watashi wa sensei desu
I'm a teacher

わたし は せんせい でした

watashi wa sensei deshita
I was a teacher

 1-c) negative past :
>>> simply .. add the negative form of (desu) then the past form

わたし は せんせい です
watashi wa sensei desu
I'm a teacher

わたし は せんせい では ありません でした
watashi wa sensei dewa arimasen deshita
わたし は せんせい じゃ ありません でした
watashi wa sensei ja arimasen deshita
わたし は せんせい では ない でした
watashi wa sensei dewa nai deshita
わたし は せんせい じゃない でした
watashi wa sensei janai deshita

all of these previous 4 sentences mean : I wasn't a teacher

NOTE : in the informal speech they use (dewanakatta) or (janakatta) ,
you can understand them more after reading about adjectives , but for
us we will use the formal way ^^

.
.

つづく

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BIRARU
Biraru san
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri May 16, 2008 2:06 am

Lesson 7 - part 3

2) adjective sentences
 2-a) Negative :


>>> delete the last (い) from the adj. and put ( くありません ) or ( くない ) instead of it .


すし は おいしい です
sushi wa oishii desu
sushi is delicious

すし は おいしくありません
sushi wa oishiku arimasen
sushi is NOT delicious

すし は おいしくない

sushi wa oishikunai
sushi is NOT delicious

NOTE : all the adj. we talk about here is from the 1st type of adjectives ,
the 2nd type has different way for making it past or negative .

 2-b) past :

>>> delete the last (い) from the adj. and put (かった) instead of it .


すし は おいしい です

sushi wa oishii desu
sushi is delicious

すし は おいしかった
sushi wa oishikatta
sushi was delicious ( for example , you ate sushi yesterday and today you're talking about it so you will say : the sushi was delicious ^^ )


.
.
つづく

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri May 16, 2008 2:08 am

Lesson 7 - part 4

 2-c) negative past :

>>> there are two ways :
>>> delete the last (い) from the adj. and put ( くありません でした ) instead of it .
>>> delete the last (い) ; put (くない) instead of it , then
delete the last (い) and put (かった) , i.e we will have ( くなかった ) instead
of the original (い) of the adjective .


すし は おいしい です

sushi wa oishii desu
sushi is delicious

すし は おいしくありませんでした
sushi wa oishiku arimasen
すし は おいしくなかった
sushi wa oishikunakatta

both sentences mean : sushi wasn't delicious

NOTE : we can add (desu) after (kunai) , (katta) & (kunakatta) for more formality and politeness .

.
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つづく

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Last edited by BIRA~RU on Fri May 16, 2008 5:33 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri May 16, 2008 5:04 pm

Lesson 7 - part 5

How to make Questions :

>>> to make a question just add (か) after the sentence , for example :

あなた は せんせい です
anata wa sensei desu
you are a teacher

あなた は せんせい ではありません か?
anata wa sensei dewa arimasen ka ?
aren't you a teacher ?
あなた は せんせい でした か?

anata wa sensei deshita ka ?
were you a teacher ?
あなた は せんせい ではありません でした か?
anata wa sensei dewa arimasen deshita ka ?
weren't you a teacher ?

>>> the same thing for adj. sentences :

すし は おいしい です

sushi wa oishii desu
sushi is delicious

すし は おいしくない です か?

sushi wa oishikunai desu ka ?
isn't the sushi delicious ?
すし は おいしかった です か?
sushi wa oishikatta desu ka ?
was the sushi delicious ?
すし は おいしくなかった です か?
sushi wa oishikunakatta desu ka ?
wasn't the sushi delicious ?



.
.


End of lesson 7
I hope you've enjoyed it ^^

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Last edited by BIRA~RU on Fri May 16, 2008 5:58 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri May 16, 2008 5:46 pm

I just added a new part talking about how to make questions for the last lesson ^^

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun May 25, 2008 6:44 pm

ごめんなさいみんな

I'm sorry for not writing the following lessons yet .. but you know .. Final exams .. shiken ga arimasu ne! ^^;

I'll try to post a lesson or two after some days in sha' ALLAH .. and I'll continue after exams end .

がんばってください ^^

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeTue Jun 03, 2008 8:15 pm

otskarisamadeshta biraru kun..

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BIRARU
Biraru san
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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeFri Jun 13, 2008 5:03 pm

Arigatou Ahamado kun :p

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PostSubject: Re: Nihongo Lessons   Nihongo Lessons - Page 2 Icon_minitimeSun Jun 15, 2008 8:27 pm

lesson 8
16-4-2008

SENTENCE STRUCTURE 3 ( VERBS )

we talked about how to add nouns and adj. to sentences .. now we will talk about an important subject which is adding verbs to the sentence ; how to make it in past , negative and negative past ... we will talk also about the types o verbs ( formal & dictionary form ) , how to add the OBJECT ( مفعول به ) , and how to make questions .. it's a long lesson and very informative ^^

-------------------------------------------------------------------

ATTENTION : THIS IS A VERY INFORMATIVE LONG LESSON .. GET A CUP OF TEA (OCHA) AND BE READY (^_')b


-------------------------------------------------------------------


Verbs in Japanese come in two forms .. the formal one ( which we are concerned about here ) & the dictionary form ( which is the informal way to speak , w will not talk about it too much ) .

FORMAL VERBS [ masu-form ] :

The verbs end by ( ます = masu ) like ( ikimasu , tabemasu , nemasu , .. ) .. such verbs are in PRESENT tense ( and they may refer to future too , we will notice this later in examples , and don't worry .. it doesn't confuse ^^ ) .. look to the following sentences :

わたし は たべます 
watahi wa tabemau ==> ( tabemasu = to eat )
I eat


Notice here : the SUBJECT ( watashi ) then (は) then the verb without (desu) after it .. this sentence means ( I eat ) .. and BE CAREFULL .. it DOES NOT mean ( I'm eating ) .. there's another way to say verbs in present continuous , this just present tense , or it could mean ( I will eat ) .

わたし の ともだち は いきます
watahi no tomodachi wa ikimasu ==> ( ikimau = to go )
my friend goes ( or : my friend will go )



PAST tense :

[ ーます ==> ーました ]

いきます ==> いきました
ikimasu ==> ikimashita
go ==> went

==> just by replacing ( masu ) by ( mashita ) it will return to the past form .

わたし は たべました
watahi wa tabemashita
I ate


わたし の おとうさん は いきました
watahi no otousan wa ikimahita
my father went
====> ( it doesn't matter where he went , we will know how to talk about places later )


NEGATIVE :

[ ーます ==> ーません ]

いきます ==> いきません
ikimasu ==> ikimasen
go ==> not go

==> just by replacing ( masu ) by ( masen ) it will return to the negative form .

わたし は よみません
watashi wa yomimasen ==> ( yomimasu = to read )
I don't read


せんせい は かきません
sensei wa kakimsen ==> ( kakimasu = to write )
the teacher doesn't write



NEGATIVE PAST :

[ ーます ==> ーません でした ]

==> just by replacing ( masu ) by ( masen deshita ) it will return to the negative past form .

いきます ==> いきません でした
ikimasu ==> ikimasen deshita
go ==> didn't go

わたい は いきません でした
watashi wa ikimasen deshita
I didn't go


がくせい は わかりません でした
gakusei wa wakarimasen deshita ==> ( wakarimasu = to understand )
the student didn't understand


IMPERATIVE ( te-form ) :

There's no one simple specific rule for making the imperative ( فعل الأمر ) in nihongo .. but there are some relations and forms let's say we can use .. we call the imperative : "te" form , because usually it ends with (て) , some verbs also end with (って) or (んで) .. look to the following examples :

たべます ==> たべて
tabemasu ==> tabete
يأكل ==> كل
to eat ==> eat

でます ==> でて
demasu ==> dete
يخرج ==> اخرج
to get out ==> get out

いきます ==> いって
ikimasu ==> itte
يذهب ==> اذهب
to go ==> go

よみます ==> よんで
yomimasu ==> yonde
يقرأ ==> اقرأ
to read ==> read

NOTE : when using te-form ; use (kudasai) after it to be polite ..
みて うださい = please see ( mimasu = to see )



.
.
つづく

_________________
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